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COMP 322: Fundamentals of Parallel Programming (Spring

...

2023)

 

Marc Canby, Anna Chi, Peter Elmers, Joseph Hungate, Cary Jiang, Gloria Kim, Kevin Mullin, Victoria Nazari, Ashok Sankaran, Sujay Tadwalkar, Anant Tibrewal, Eugene Wang, Yufeng Zhou

Instructor:

Prof. Vivek SarkarMackale Joyner, DH 31312063

Head TA:Max Grossman

Admin Assistant:

Annepha Hurlock, annepha@rice.edu, DH 3080, 713-348-5186

Graduate TAs:

Jonathan Sharman, Ryan Spring, Bing Xue, Lechen Yu

Co-Instructor:Dr. Mackale JoynerUndergraduate TAs:TAs:Mohamed Abead, Chase Hartsell, Taha Hasan, Harrison Huang, Jerry Jiang, Jasmine Lee, Michelle Lee, Hung Nguyen, Quang Nguyen, Ryan Ramos, Oscar Reynozo, Delaney Schultz, Tina Wen, Raiyan Zannat, Kailin Zhang

Piazza site:

https://piazza.com/classrice/ixdqx0x3bjl6enspring2022/comp322 (Piazza is the preferred medium for all course communications, but you can also send email to comp322-staff at rice dot edu if needed)

Cross-listing:

ELEC 323

Lecture location:

Herzstein Hall 210TBD

Lecture times:

MWF 1:00pm - 1:50pm (followed by group office hours during 2pm - 3pm, usually in DH 3092)

Lab locations:

DH 1042, DH 1064TBD

Lab times:

Wednesday, 07Mon  3:00pm - 3:50pm ()

Tue 4:00pm - 084:30pm50pm ()

Course Syllabus

A summary PDF file containing the course syllabus for the course can be found here.  Much of the syllabus information is also included below in this course web site, along with some additional details that are not included in the syllabus.

...

The desired learning outcomes fall into three major areas (course modules):

1) Parallelism: functional programming, Java streams, creation and coordination of parallelism (async, finish), abstract performance metrics (work, critical paths), Amdahl's Law, weak vs. strong scaling, data races and determinism, data race avoidance (immutability, futures, accumulators, dataflow), deadlock avoidance, abstract vs. real performance (granularity, scalability), collective & point-to-point synchronization (phasers, barriers), parallel algorithms, systolic algorithms.

...

3) Locality & Distribution: memory hierarchies, locality, cache affinity, data movement, message-passing (MPI), communication overheads (bandwidth, latency), MapReduce, accelerators, GPGPUs, CUDA, OpenCL.

To achieve these learning outcomes, each class period will include time for both instructor lectures and in-class exercises based on assigned reading and videos.  The lab exercises will be used to help students gain hands-on programming experience with the concepts introduced in the lectures.

To ensure that students gain a strong knowledge of parallel programming foundations, the classes and homeworks homework will place equal emphasis on both theory and practice. The programming component of the course will mostly use the  Habanero-Java Library (HJ-lib)  pedagogic extension to the Java language developed in the  Habanero Extreme Scale Software Research project  at Rice University.  The course will also introduce you to real-world parallel programming models including Java Concurrency, MapReduce, MPI, OpenCL and CUDA. An important goal is that, at the end of COMP 322, you should feel comfortable programming in any parallel language for which you are familiar with the underlying sequential language (Java or C). Any parallel programming primitives that you encounter in the future should be easily recognizable based on the fundamentals studied in COMP 322.

...

The prerequisite course requirements are COMP 182 and COMP 215.  COMP 322 should be accessible to anyone familiar with the foundations of sequential algorithms and data structures, and with basic Java programming.  COMP 321 is also recommended as a co-requisite.  

Textbooks and Other Resources

There are no required textbooks for the class. Instead, lecture handouts are provided for each module as follows.  The links  You are expected to the latest versions on Canvas are included below:

  • Module 1 handout (Parallelism)
  • Module 2 handout (Concurrency)
  • Module 3 handout (Distribution and Locality)

You are expected to read the relevant sections in each lecture handout read the relevant sections in each lecture handout before coming to the lecture.  We will also provide a number of references in the slides and handouts.The links to the latest versions of the lecture handouts are included below:

  • Module 1 handout (Parallelism)
  • Module 2 handout (Concurrency)

There are also a few optional textbooks that we will draw from quite heavilyduring the course.  You are encouraged to get copies of any or all of these books.  They will serve as useful references both during and after this course:

Past Offerings of COMP 322

Lecture Schedule

 

...

Week

...

Day

...

Date (2017)

...

Lecture

...

Assigned Videos (see Canvas site for vide links)

...

In-class Worksheets

...

Work Assigned

...

Work Due

...

1

...

Mon

...

Jan 09

...

Lecture 1: Task Creation and Termination (Async, Finish)

...

Lecture Schedule

 

 

11 2  Computation Graphs, Ideal Parallelism Future Tasks, Functional ParallelismTopic 2.1 Lecture ,   Topic 2.1 Demonstration  Finish Accumulators3   3    Java’s Fork/Join Library Loop-Level Parallelism, Parallel Matrix Multiplication, Iteration Grouping (Chunking) Topic 3.1 Lecture , Topic 3.1 Demonstration , Topic 3.2 Lecture, Topic 3.2 Demonstration, Topic 3.3 Lecture , Topic 3.3 Demonstration   Barrier Synchronization 3 3 Iterative Averaging Revisited, SPMD pattern 3 3 , Topic 3.6 Lecture,   Topic 3.6 Demonstration  -  Data-Driven Tasks and Data-Driven Futures 45 , 45 Pipeline Parallelism, Signal Statement, Fuzzy Barriers 44 44 41  Topic 4.1 Demonstration,Quiz for Unit 3  Wed 22 lec27-slides lec29-slides Fri 31 30: Java Synchronizers, Dining Philosophers Problem 6  -Scheduled final exam (Exam 2 – scope of exam limited to lectures 18-37), location and time TBD by registrar

Week

Day

Date (2022)

Lecture

Assigned Reading

Assigned Videos (see Canvas site for video links)

In-class Worksheets

Slides

Work Assigned

Work Due

Worksheet Solutions 

1

Mon

Jan 09

Lecture 1: Introduction

 

 

worksheet1lec1-slides  

 

 

WS1-solution 

 

Wed

Jan 11

Lecture 2:  Functional Programming

GList.java worksheet2lec02-slides

 

 

WS2-solution Wed
 FriJan 13Lecture 3: Module 1: Sections 1.2, 1.3Topic 1.2 Lecture, Topic 1.2 Demonstration, Topic 1.3 Lecture, Topic 1.3 Demonstrationworksheet2lec2-slides

Homework 1

 

 FriJan 13Lecture 3: Abstract Performance Metrics, Multiprocessor SchedulingModule 1: Section 1.4Topic 1.4 Lecture, Topic 1.4 Demonstrationworksheet3lec3-slides

 

 
Higher order functions  worksheet3 lec3-slides   

 

 WS3-solution 

2

Mon

Jan 16

No lecture, School Holiday (Martin Luther King, Jr. Day)class: MLK

        

 

Wed

Jan 18

Lecture 4:   Parallel Speedup and Amdahl's LawModule 1: Section 1.5Topic 1.5 Lecture, Topic 1.5 DemonstrationLazy Computation

LazyList.java

Lazy.java

 worksheet4lec4-slides  WS4-solution 

 

Fri

Jan 20

Lecture 5:

Module 1: Section 2.1

Java Streams

  worksheet5lec5-slidesHomework 1 

3

WS5-solution 
3MonJan 23

Lecture 6: Memoization Map Reduce with Java Streams

Module 1: Section 2.24Topic 2.2 4 Lecture  ,  Topic 2.2 4 Demonstration  worksheet6lec6-slides

 

 WS6-solution 

 

Wed

Jan 25

Lecture 7:

Futures

Module 1: Section 2.31Topic 2.1 Lecture, Topic 2.1 Demonstrationworksheet7lec7-slides

Homework 2

Homework 1

 

 WS7-solution 

 

Fri

Jan 27

Lecture 8: Data Races, Functional & Structural Determinism  Computation Graphs, Ideal Parallelism

Module 1: Sections 1.2.5, 21.63Topic 1.2 .5 Lecture  ,   Topic 1.2 .5 Demonstration, Topic 21.6 3 Lecture  ,   Topic 21.6 3 Demonstration   worksheet8lec8-slides  Quiz for Unit 1WS8-solution 

4

Mon

 

Jan 30 Lecture 9: Map ReduceAsync, Finish, Data-Driven Tasks 

Module 1: Section

2

1.1, 4.5

 

Topic

2

1.

4

1 Lecture

 

,

 

Topic

2

1.1 Demonstration, Topic 4

Demonstration   

.5 Lecture, Topic 4.5 Demonstration

worksheet9

lec9-slidesslides   WS9-solution 
 WedFeb 01Lecture 10: FJP chapter: Sections 7.3 & 7.5Event-based programming model

 

  worksheet10lec10-slides Homework 1WS10-solution 
 FriFeb 03Lecture 11: Module 1: Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 GUI programming as an example of event-based,
futures/callbacks in GUI programming
  worksheet11lec11-slidesHomework 2 WS11-solution 
5

Mon

Feb 06

Lecture 12: Scheduling/executing computation graphs
Abstract performance metrics
Module 1: Section 31.4Topic 1.4 Lecture , Topic 1.4 Demonstrationworksheet12lec12-slides  WS12-solution 

 

Wed

Feb 08

Lecture 13:

Parallel Speedup, Critical Path, Amdahl's Law

Module 1: Sections 3Section 1.5, 3.6

Topic

1.5 Lecture , Topic

1.5 Demonstration

  worksheet13 lec13-slides

Homework 3

(includes two intermediate checkpoints)

Homework 2

worksheet13lec13-slides  WS13-solution 

 

Fri

Feb 10

No class: Spring Recess

 

    Quiz for Unit 2    
6

Mon

Feb 13

Lecture 14:

Accumulation and reduction. Finish accumulators

Module 1: Section 42.53Topic 2.3 Lecture   Topic 2.3 Demonstrationworksheet14lec14-slides  WS14-solution 

 

Wed

Feb 15Topic 4.2 Lecture ,   Topic 4.2 Demonstration, Topic 4.3 Lecture,  Topic 4.3 Demonstration

Lecture 15:  Phasers, Point-to-point Synchronization

Module 1: Sections 4.2, 4.3

Recursive Task Parallelism  

  worksheet15lec15-slides

 

 

 

Fri

Feb 17

WS15-solution 
 FriFeb 17

Lecture 16:

Data Races, Functional & Structural Determinism

Module 1: Sections 42.45, 42.16Topic 2.5 Lecture ,  Topic 2.5 Demonstration,  Topic 2.6 Lecture,  Topic 2.6 Demonstrationworksheet16 lec16-slides Homework 3Homework 2WS16-solution 

7

Mon

Feb 20

Lecture 17: Midterm SummaryReview

    lec18lec17-slides    

 

Wed

Feb 22Midterm Review (interactive Q&A, no lecture)

Lecture 18: Limitations of Functional parallelism.
Abstract vs. real performance. Cutoff Strategy

  worksheet18lec18-slides  Exam 1 held during lab time (7:00pm - 10:00pm), scope of exam limited to lectures 1-17 Homework 3, Checkpoint-1

 

Fri

Feb 24

Lecture 18: Abstract vs. Real Performance

   worksheet17 lec17-slides   Quiz for Unit 4

8

Mon

Feb 27

Lecture 19: Task Scheduling Policies

   worksheet19 lec19-slides  

 

 

Wed

Mar 01

Lecture 20: Critical sections, Isolated construct, Parallel Spanning Tree algorithm (start of Module 2)WS18-solution 

 

Fri

Feb 24 

Lecture 19: Fork/Join programming model. OS Threads. Scheduler Pattern 

 Topic 2.7 Lecture, Topic 2.7 Demonstration, Topic 2.8 Lecture, Topic 2.8 Demonstration, worksheet19lec19-slides  WS19-solution 

8

Mon

Feb 27

Lecture 20: Confinement & Monitor Pattern. Critical sections
Global lock

Module 2: Sections 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6 Topic 5.1 Lecture, Topic 5.1 Demonstration, Topic 5.2 Lecture, Topic 5.2 Demonstration, Topic 5.3 6 Lecture, Topic 5.3 Demonstration 6 Demonstrationworksheet20lec20-slides        WS20-solution 

 

FriWed

Mar 0301

Lecture 21:  Atomic variables, Read-Write IsolationSynchronized statements

Module 2: Sections 5.4,

5

7.

5

2

Topic 5.4 Lecture, Topic 5.4 Demonstration, Topic 57.5 Lecture, Topic 5.5 Demonstration, Topic 5.6 Lecture, Topic 5.6 Demonstration 2 Lectureworksheet21lec21-slides  WS21-solution 

9 

MonFri

Mar 0603

Lecture 22:   Parallelism in Java Streams, Parallel Prefix SumsParallel Spanning Tree, other graph algorithms 

  worksheet22lec22-slidesHomework 4

 

 Homework 3

WS22-solution 

 9

WedMon

Mar 0806

Lecture 23: Java Threads , Java synchronized statement

and Locks

Module 2: Sections 7.1, 7.3

Topic 7.1 Lecture, Topic 7.

2

3 Lecture

worksheet23 lec23-slides  

Homework 3, Checkpoint-2 

WS23-solution 

 

FriWed

Mar 1008

Lecture 24:  Java synchronized statement (contd), wait/notify

Java Locks - Soundness and progress guarantees  

Module 2: 7.5Topic 7.3 5 Lecture worksheet24 lec24-slides  Quiz for Unit 5

 

WS24-

M-F

Mar 13 - Mar 17

Spring Break

solution 

 

    

10

Mon

Mar 20

Lecture 25: Concurrent Objects, Linearizability of Concurrent Objects

  Topic 7.4

Fri

Mar 10

 Lecture 25: Dining Philosophers Problem  Module 2: 7.6Topic 7.6 Lectureworksheet25lec25-slides 

 

WS25-solution 
 

Mon

Mar 13

Lecture 26: Linearizability (contd), Java locks

 Topic 7.3 Lecture (recap), Topic 7.4 Lecture (recap) worksheet26 lec26-slides

Homework 4

(includes one intermediate checkpoint)

Homework 3 (all)

 

Fri

Mar 24

Lecture 27: Parallel Design Patterns, Safety and Liveness Properties  

 Topic 7.5 Lecture worksheet27

No class: Spring Break

     

 

  
 WedMar 15No class: Spring Break    

 

   

11 

MonFri

Mar 2717

Lecture 28: ActorsNo class: Spring Break

  Topic 6.1 Lecture ,   Topic 6.1 Demonstration ,   Topic 6.2 Lecture, Topic 6.2 Demonstration, Topic 6.3 Lecture, Topic 6.3 Demonstration worksheet28 lec28-slides    

 

  

 10

WedMon

Mar 2920

Lecture 29:  Actors (contd)

 Topic 6.4 Lecture , Topic 6.4 Demonstration ,   Topic 6.5 Lecture, Topic 6.5 Demonstration, Topic 6.6 Lecture, Topic 6.6 Demonstration worksheet29

26: N-Body problem, applications and implementations 

  worksheet26lec26-slides   WS26-solution 

 

 

Wed

Mar

22

Lecture

27: Read-Write Locks, Linearizability of Concurrent Objects

Module 2: 7.3, 7.4Topic 7.3 Lecture, Topic 7.4 Lecture worksheet30 worksheet27 lec30lec27-slides

 

 

12

Mon

Apr 03

Lecture 31: Eureka-style Speculative Task Parallelism WS27-solution 

 

worksheet31 lec31-slides  

 

 

Wed

Apr 05

Lecture 32:  Task Affinity with Places (start of Module 3)

   worksheet32 lec32-slides

 

Homework 4 Checkpoint-1

 

Fri

Apr 07

Lecture 33: Message Passing Interface (MPI)

   worksheet33 lec33-slides

 

 

13

Mon

Apr 10

Lecture 34: Message Passing Interface (MPI, contd)

   worksheet34 lec34

Fri

Mar 24

Lecture 28: Message-Passing programming model with Actors

Module 2: 6.1, 6.2Topic 6.1 Lecture, Topic 6.1 Demonstration,   Topic 6.2 Lecture, Topic 6.2 Demonstration worksheet28lec28-slides

 

 

 

WS28-solution 

11

Mon

Mar 27

Lecture 29: Active Object Pattern. Combining Actors with task parallelism 

Module 2: 6.3, 6.4Topic 6.3 Lecture, Topic 6.3 Demonstration,   Topic 6.4 Lecture, Topic 6.4 Demonstrationworksheet29lec29-slides

 

 

WS29-solution 

 

Wed

Mar 29

Lecture 30: Task Affinity and locality. Memory hierarchy 

  worksheet30lec30-slides

 

 

Wed

Apr 12

Lecture 35: GPU ComputingWS30-solution 

 

 

Fri

worksheet35lec35-slides

Homework 5  

(Due April 21st, with automatic extension until May 1st after which slip days may be used)

Homework 4 (all)

 

Fri

Apr 14

Lecture 36: Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming models

  worksheet36

lec36-slides

  

14

Mon

Apr 17

Lecture 37: Apache Spark framework

  worksheet37lec37-slides 

 

 

Wed

Apr 19

Lecture 38: Topic TBD

 

    

 

 

 

Fri

Apr 21

Lecture 39: Course Review (lectures 20-37), Last day of classes

   lec38-slides 

Homework 5 (automatic extension until May 1st, after which slip days may be used)

-MonApr 24Review session / Office Hours, 1pm - 3pm, location TBD 

Mar 31

Lecture 31: Data-Parallel Programming model. Loop-Level Parallelism, Loop Chunking

Module 1: Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3Topic 3.1 Lecture, Topic 3.1 Demonstration , Topic 3.2 Lecture,  Topic 3.2 Demonstration, Topic 3.3 Lecture,  Topic 3.3 Demonstrationworksheet31lec31-slidesHomework 5

Homework 4

WS31-solution 

12

Mon

Apr 03

Lecture 32: Barrier Synchronization with PhasersModule 1: Section 3.4Topic 3.4 Lecture,  Topic 3.4 Demonstrationworksheet32lec32-slides

 

 

WS32-solution 

 

Wed

Apr 05

Lecture 33:  Stencil computation. Point-to-point Synchronization with Phasers

Module 1: Section 4.2, 4.3

Topic 4.2 Lecture, Topic 4.2 Demonstration, Topic 4.3 Lecture,  Topic 4.3 Demonstration

worksheet33lec33-slides

 

 WS33-solution 

 

Fri

Apr 07

Lecture 34: Fuzzy Barriers with Phasers

Module 1: Section 4.1Topic 4.1 Lecture, Topic 4.1 Demonstrationworksheet34lec34-slides 

 

WS34-solution 

13

Mon

Apr 10

Lecture 35: Eureka-style Speculative Task Parallelism 

 

worksheet35lec35-slides

 

 

WS35-solution 
 WedApr 12Lecture 36: Scan Pattern. Parallel Prefix Sum 

 

worksheet36lec36-slides  WS36-solution 
 FriApr 14Lecture 37: Parallel Prefix Sum applications  worksheet37lec37-slides    
-14WedMonApr 26Review session / Office Hours, 1pm - 3pm, location TBD17Lecture 38: Overview of other models and frameworks   lec38-slides    
- FriWedApr 2819Review session / Office Hours, 1pm - 3pm, location TBD Lecture 39: Course Review (Lectures 19-38)   lec39-slides    
 Fri

 

April 26 - May 3

Apr 21Lecture 40: Course Review (Lectures 19-38)   lec40-slides Homework 5  

Lab Schedule

0  SetupMar 29 and Selectors 05Eureka-style Speculative Task

Lab #

Date (20172023)

Topic

Handouts

Code Examples

1

Jan 09

Infrastructure

lab0-handout-

1

Jan 11

Async-Finish Parallel Programming with abstract metricssetup

lab0-handout

lab1-handout

, lab1-slides
lab_1.zip

2

Jan 18

TBD

lab2-handout, lab2-slides
lab_2.zip

3

Jan 25

DIY HJ-lib Programming, Futures

lab3-handout, lab3-slides lab_3.zip

4

Feb 01

Finish Accumulators and Loop-Level Parallelism

lab4-handout, lab4-slides   lab_4.zip

5

Feb 08

Loop Chunking and Barrier Synchronization

lab5-handout, lab5-slides lab_5.zip

6

Feb 15

Data-Driven Futures and Phasers

lab6-handout   lab_6.zip

-

Feb 22

No lab this week — Exam 1

--

7

Mar 01

Isolated Statement and Atomic Variables

lab7-handout 

8

Mar 08

Java Threads

lab8

 
-Jan 16No lab this week (MLK)  
2Jan 23Functional Programminglab2-handout 

3

Jan 30

Java Streams

lab3-handout
 
4Feb 06Futureslab4-handout 

5

Feb 13

Data-Driven Tasks

lab5-handout 
-Feb 20No lab this week (Midterm)  
6

Feb 27

Async / Finish

lab6-handout 
7Mar 06Recursive Task Cutoff Strategylab7-handout 
-Mar 1513No lab this week (Spring Break)  
8Mar 20Java Threadslab8-handout 
9Mar 2227Java LocksConcurrent Listslab9-handout 
10Apr 03Actorslab10-handout 
11

Apr

10

Loop Parallelism

lab11-handout 

12-

Apr 12

Message Passing Interface (MPI)

lab12-handout

17

No lab this week

 13Apr 19Apache Spark
lab13-handout 

Grading, Honor Code Policy, Processes and Procedures

Grading will be based on your performance on five homeworks four homework assignments (weighted 40% in all), two exams (weighted 40% in all), weekly lab exercises (weighted 10% in all), online quizzes (weighted 5% in all), and class participation including in-class Q&A, worksheets, Piazza participation class worksheets (weighted 5% in all).

The purpose of the homeworks homework is to give you practice in solving problems that deepen your understanding of concepts introduced in class. Homeworks are Homework is due on the dates and times specified in the course schedule.  No late submissions (other than those using slip days mentioned below) will be accepted.

The slip day policy for COMP 322 is similar to that of COMP 321. All students will be given 3 slip days to use throughout the semester. When you use a slip day, you will receive up to 24 additional hours to complete the assignment. You may use these slip days in any way you see fit (3 days on one assignment, 1 day each on 3 assignments, etc.). Slip days will be automatically tracked through the Autograder, more details are available later in this document and in the Autograder user guideusing the README.md file. Other than slip days, no extensions will be given unless there are exceptional circumstances (such as severe sickness, not because you have too much other work). Such extensions must be requested and approved by the instructor (via e-mail, phone, or in person) before the due date for the assignment. Last minute requests are likely to be denied.

Labs must be submitted by the following Wednesday at 4:30pm.  Labs must be checked off by a TA prior to the start of the lab the following week.

Worksheets should be completed in class for full credit.  For partial credit, a worksheet can be turned in before the start of the class following the one in which the worksheet for distributed, should be completed by the deadline listed in Canvas so that solutions to the worksheets can be discussed in the next class.

You will be expected to follow the Honor Code in all homeworks and homework and exams.  The following policies will apply to different work products in the course:

  • In-class worksheets: You are free to discuss all aspects of in-class worksheets with your other classmates, the teaching assistants and the professor during the class. You can work in a group and write down the solution that you obtained as a group. If you work on the worksheet outside of class (e.g., due to an absence), then it must be entirely your individual effort, without discussion with any other students.  If you use any material from external sources, you must provide proper attribution.
  • Weekly lab assignments: You are free to discuss all aspects of lab assignments with your other classmates, the teaching assistants and the professor during the lab.  However, all code and reports that you submit are expected to be the result of your individual effort. If you work on the lab outside of class (e.g., due to an absence), then it must be entirely your individual effort, without discussion with any other students.  If you use any material from external sources, you must provide proper attribution (as shown here).
  • HomeworksHomework: All submitted homeworks are homework is expected to be the result of your individual effort. You are free to discuss course material and approaches to problems with your other classmates, the teaching assistants and the professor, but you should never misrepresent someone else’s work as your own. If you use any material from external sources, you must provide proper attribution.
  • Quizzes: Each online quiz will be an open-notes individual test.  The student may consult their course materials and notes when taking the quizzes, but may not consult any other external sources.
  • Exams: Each exam will be a closedopen-book, closedopen-notes, and closedopen-computer individual written test, which must be completed within a specified time limit.  No class notes or external materials may be consulted when taking the exams.

 

...

  • .

 

For grade disputes, please send an email to the course instructors within 7 days of receiving your grade. The email subject should include COMP 322 and the assignment. Please provide enough information in the email so that the instructor does not need to perform a checkout of your code.

Accommodations for Students with Special Needs

...