1. In a web browser, go to the University of Pittsburgh Comparative Archaeology Database at
  2. Click Datasets by Goegraphic Region >>.
  3. Scroll down to the CENTRAL AMERICA section.
  4. Click the dataset assigned to your project group: Río Tonosí Valley, San Ramón de Alajuela, Masaya, OR Volcán Barú. (NOTE: The demonstration was performed using Upper Térraba.)
  5. Scroll down to THE DATASET section.
  6. Under the Spatial Information section, there is a paragraph describing the coordinate system used in the AutoCAD files. Record this information, if available, as shown below.

    Project SiteCoordinate System Description
    MasayaUTM Zone 16 P (units are meters) based on the WGS84 datum
    San Ramón de AlajuelaNone listed
    Río Tonosí ValleyUTM Zone 17 N (units are in meters) based on the WGS84 datum
    Upper TérrabaCosta Rica national mapping grid system: CRTM05
    Volcán BarúNone listed
  7. Under the Spatial Information section, click the link containing your collection lots.

    Project SiteLink to Spatial Collection Lot Data
    MasayaCollection lots
    San Ramón de AlajuelaSpatial Information
    Río Tonosí ValleySurvey collection lots
    Upper TérrabaCollection lots
    Volcán BarúSites Map
  8. Scroll to the bottom of the webpage and click the DXF file link to download.
  9. On the browser, click the back button to return to your main dataset webpage.
  10. Under the Numeric Data section, click ?
  11. Scroll to the bottom and click the XLS file link to download


You will need to format each data table you anticipate should meet the following criteria:

  1. There should be a single header row with variable names and the data should begin in row 2.
  2. The format of the lot ID needs to be the same in Excel as it is in GIS
  3. If there are numeric data columns with lots of blanks in the first few rows, the blanks should be replaced with zeros, so that GIS recognizes the column as containing numeric data.
  4. Any formulas must be copied as pasted as values.



  1. From the Start menu, open the ArcGIS Pro application.
  2. After creating your project, go back to your NetID folder through Windows and drag all desired DXF and XLS files into the project folder.


Importing CAD (.dxf or .dwg) data into a file geodatabase

  1. On the ribbon, click the Analysis tab.
  2. In the Geoprocessing group, click the Tools button to open the Geoprocessing pane on the right.
  3. In the Geoprocessing pane, search "cad" and click the CAD to Geodatabase tool.
  4. For 'Input CAD Datasets', click the Browse... button and navigate to and select the .dxf file and click OK.
  5. For 'Output Geodatabase', leave the default project geodatabase with your site name.
  6. For 'Dataset', leave the default name, which should be a combination of the original CAD file name and the name of the tool "CADToGeodatabase".
  7. For Spatial Reference, click the Select coordinate system button and navigate to the coordinate system indicated In the ANTH 355 Reference in Google Drive.
  8. Click Run.

Splitting CAD layers

  1. In the Geoprocessing pane, if necessary, hit the Back arrow to return to the tool search interface.
  2. Search "split" and click the Split By Attributes tool.
  3. For 'Input Table', use the drop-down menu to select the converted CAD layer you wish to split.
  4. For 'Target Workspace', click the Browse... button and navigate to and single click your project geodatabase with your site name and click OK.
  5. For 'Split Fields', select the Layer field.
  6. Click Run.


Assigning lot IDs to lot polygons

  1. Return to the Catalog pane and add the lot polygon layer, as indicated in the Google sheet to your map. Your annotation point layer should already have been added to your map.
  2. Return to the Geoprocessing pane, search "join" and click the Spatial Join tool.
  3. For 'Target Features', use the drop-down menu to select your lots polygon layer.
  4. For 'Join Features', use the drop-down menu to select your Annotation (containing the lot IDs) point layer.
  5. For 'Output Feature Class', rename the feature class "LotsWithIDs".
  6. Leave the rest of the defaults and click Run.
  7. remove original lots, polygon, annotation

Add new field

  1. Figure out whether to do this in class or outside meetings or follow written instructions
  2. TxtMemoClean



  3. After join, show sort missing and reverse join to see which don't have it, or symbolize by join count (we don't have time for data cleaning)

  4. Export with join



  1. Add formatted Excel spreadsheet
  2. In the Contents pane, right-click the LotsWithIDs layer and select Joins and Relates > Add Join.
  3. For 'Layer Name or Table View' keep LotsWithIDs layer selected.
  4. For 'Input Join Field', scroll down to the very bottom and select the TxtMemo field, or whichever field contains your unique lot IDs.
  5. For 'Join Table', select your Excel table.
  6. For 'Output Join Field', select the field containing the unique lot ID, as indicated below.


Project SiteLink to Spatial Collection Lot Data
MasayaCollection lots
San Ramón de AlajuelaSpatial Information
Río Tonosí ValleySurvey collection lots
Upper TérrabaCollection lots
Volcán BarúSites Map


    1. In the Contents pane, right-click the LotsWithIDs layer and select Attribute Table. Scroll to the right and ensure that your variables are appearing okay.
    2. (Can repeat the join process with multiple tables to create a single mega-table)
    3. Right-click LOTS_withID and select Export Features.
    4. For Output Feature Class, type "Lots_withData"
    5. Click Run.Lots_withData


Basic Symbology with Graduated Colors

    1. In the Contents pane, right-click the LotswithID layer name and select Symbology to open the Symbology pane on the right.
    2. For 'Primary symbology', use the drop-down menu to select Graduated Colors (assuming you have numeric data).
    3. For 'Field', use the drop-down menu to select your Field of interest (e.g. Total Sherds).

Normalized Graduated Colors

    1. In the Symbology pane, for 'Normalization', select the population universe field, if a percentage is desired.
    2. At the top of the Symbology pane, click the Advanced symbol options button (4th button with paintbrush).
    3. Expand the Format labels section.
    4. For 'Category', used the drop-down menu to select Percentage.
    5. For 'Percentage', selectNumber represents a fraction., assuming your values are between 0 and 1.
    6. For 'Decimal places', you will likely want to type "0" or "1".

Duplicating Layers for Different Symbology

    1. In the Contents pane, right-click the LotsWithID layer name and select Copy.
    2. Scroll to the top of the Contents pane and right-click the name of the map (e.g. Map) and select Paste. This can be repeated for as many fields (variables) as you'd like to symbolize within that particular layer's attribute table.
    3. Create 3 copies for 4 total (Chirqui Decorated/Chiriqui sherds) (Total quebradas vs total chiriqui)

If you have more than a few variable layers, you will likely want to organize them by topic using group layers.

    1. At the top of the Contents pane, right-click on Map and select New Group Layer.
    2. Drag and drop the related layers on top of the group layer.

The settings in the Symbology pane apply to whichever layer is currently selected in the Contents pane.


Additional Symbology Options with Graduated Colors

    1. For 'Methods', preview Natural Breaks and Quantile at a minimum, referring to both the table and the histogram and think about the impacts on the appearance of the map.
    2. After your examination, you will likely want to round the values to facilitate quick interpretation (unless exact statistical breaks, such as quantile are required for another reason.) (In the demo, we rounded to 5/10/25/100 for Total Sherds)
    3. For 'Classes', we recommend reducing the number to 3 or 4, if possible, and no more than 5, unless you spend time customizing the colors to ensure the can be easily distinguished on the map.
    4. For 'Color scheme', use the drop-down menu to select the color ramp of your choice.
    5. To customize the color scheme, use the drop-down menu to select Format color scheme....
    6. Click the triangle-shaped Reverse color scheme button to flip ramp.
    7. To adjust the colors used in a Continuous Color Scheme, click on one of the Stop color sliders and then use the Color drop-down menu below to select the desired color.
    8. To customize the polygon borders, in the Symbology pane, at the top-right of the Symbol table, click More and select format all symbols, properties tab, change outline color and/or width. For a map fully zoomed out, you will likely might want to completely remove the borders or the borders will completely obscure the fill colors of the polygon.


To create a new layout:

    1. On the ribbon, click the Insert tab and click the New Layout button.
    2. For a full page map intended for an appendix, select Letter 8.5" x 11", either Letter or Landscape depending on the aspect ratio of your intended content.

      If you were inserting an image into the body of your report or preparing it for a presentation, you would instead want to select Custom page size... and make something 6.5" wide for the body of a report or 7.5" x 10" for Presentation or 7.5" x 13.33" for wide screen.

Adding your Map Frame:

    1. On the ribbon, click the Insert tab, click the Map Frame button and select the Map with a scale (e.g. 1:50,000).
    2. Click and hold the mouse button to draw a box on the page.

Create even borders:

    1. On the ribbon, click the contextual Map Frame Format tab.
    2. In the Size & Position group, type 7.5 x 9.5 for Width and Height.
    3. Type 0.5 x 0.5 for X and Y for the positioning from the bottom left corner of the page.

Adding inset maps into layout:

    1. Insert map frame again
    2. To pan and zoom within the layout, right click on the Map Frame and click Activate
    3. Click red X to close activation
    4. Select inset map
    5. In Contents pane, zoom to lots w/ data layer.
    6. Ensure that the inset map is selected in the Layout View.
    7. On the ribbon, click the Extent Indicator button and click Map Frame.

To remove Service Layer Credits:

    1. Click Dynamic text, click Service Layer Credits, drag a box
    2. Basemaps Credit in sources section of report, but take off map.

To insert a title:

    1. Insert tab, Text group, Rectangle text button.
    2. Drag box in white space at top
    3. Type in title (e.g. "Appendix A: Total Sherds)
    4. At the top of the Element pane, click the Text Symbol tab.
    5. Expand the Appearance section to change font, something like 24 pt.
    6. Right-click text box > Align > Align to page
    7. Right-click text box > Align > Align to center

To insert a legend:

    1. Update layer name if necessary
    2. In the Element pane, leftmost Options button.
    3. Click Show properties... button
    4. Uncheck Headings.
    5. Click back arrow.
    6. Click the Display button at top of Element pane.
    7. Select a border and background color using the checkerboard drop-down boxes.
    8. Set the XY gap 

To insert a scale bar:

    1. In Element page, Change map units to Kilometers, if desirable.
    2. Drag scale bar width, until number listed is rounded.
    3. Divisions 1 and Subdivisions 2

To change the orientation of the map and add a north arrow:

    1. Activate data frame
    2. On ribbon, on View tab, click Navigator button.
    3. In Navigator circle interface, click up arrow to show full controls.
    4. Drag inner circle to rotate the map view.
    5. Cancel activation
    6. Insert north arrow.

Second layout

Two frames stacked 7.5" x 4.5" tall with two different variables, how to link data frames

Bottom map 0.5 x 0.5, top one 0.5 x 5.5

Rename Frames "Top Frame and bottom frame" and show what is selected on map is which frame is highlighted in Contents pane.

    1. Activate top frame and zoom in.
    2. Close activation
    3. RIght-click on bottom frame and do properties
    4. Click the Display Options button.
    5. Use the Constraint drop-down to select Linked map frame extent
    6. Show Map frame drop-down.
    7. On the ribbon, go to Share tab.
    8. Click Layout in the Export group.
    9. Export PDF, change DPI to 600 for printing.
    10. Click Browse button for file path Name field.
    11. Click Export to save PDF.
    12. Combining PDF files.

To create a new full page map for appendix. Letter size 9.5x11 with 0.5" margins.

Add a title

Two layouts

Main frame and an inset index map



Directional distribution

    1. Weighted by Quebradas sherds
    2. Repeat with 3 other eras

Kernel density

To the layperson, when we say we would like to create a hotspot map, we are typically actually talking about a kernel density map. 

To convert features to points:

    1. On the Geoprocessing pane, go to Feature to Point
    2. Input Features would be any of your lot with data layers
    3. For the name of the input feature, choose the 'Lots_withData' input and add the word 'Centroid'
    4. Click 'Run'

Now, go back to the geoprocessing pane and search up "Kernel density"

    1. Input point or polyline features
      1. Choose the input that you just made, which is the 'Lots_withDataCentroid' input
    2. Population field
      1. Choose the field you want
    3. Output raster
      1. Name of the variable you're working on
    4. Output cell values
      1. Choose "Expected counts"
    5. Click 'Run'

One thing you may notice is that because this is a raster layer, we're seeing the grid cells.

Make sure that in the contents pane, your kernel density layer is selected.

If you go to the raster layer appearance tab in the ribbon, in the rendering group, there is a "Rendering type" button where you can change the view ex. nearest neighbor, linear, cubic.

The lower the choice, the smoother the cells will appear.

To choose the color ramp, click the layer in the contents pane, then press "Symbology" in the lower right corner of the geoprocessing pane.

Spatial Statistics Tools

Cluster and Outlier Analysis

    1. Input Feature
      1. Choose the 'Lots_withData' input
    2. Input Field
      1. Choose the one with the same counts (that you used before in Kernel Density)
    3. Run the rest with defaults
    4. Click 'Run'

Optimized hot spot

Cluster outlier

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