Reserved Keyword

"next" is a reserved keyword for phasers. The frontend will throw an error whenever a local or a field is name next.

IN clause

  • Pitfall: It is forbidden to pass addresses of locals on stack to an async IN clause
  • Solutions: 
    • Use the OUT clause
    • Pass a pointer to a data-structure allocated on the heap
// Invalid example => Non-deterministic runtime error
int a = 0;
int * ptr = &a;

finish async IN(ptr) { *ptr = 10; }
// Here the address of 'a' stored in ptr may now
// points to a deallocated portion of the stack.
// Legal code
int * ptr = malloc(sizeof(int));

finish async IN(ptr) { *ptr = 10; }
// the address pointed to by ptr is
// allocated in the heap and remains so.
  • Pitfall: Arrays allocated on stack are currently not supported
  • Solutions: 
    • Work with arrays allocated on the heap
// Invalid example => Non-deterministic runtime error
int a [10];

finish async IN(a) { a[0] = 1; }
// Here the address of 'a' may now points
// to a deallocated portion of the stack.
  • Pitfall: Only a single IN, OUT or INOUT clause can be provided to an async.
  • Solution:
    • IN can take several arguments (similarly to a method call invocation).
// Legal code: a single IN clause, that takes a list several arguments
async IN(a,b) OUT(x) { code }

// Invalid example => Compile time error (two IN clauses specified)
async IN(a) IN(b) OUT(x) { code }

OUT clause

  • Pitfall: OUT variables are guaranteed to have been written back only after the enclosing finish scope is finished
int a = 0;
int x = 0; // 1
finish {
  async IN(a) OUT(x) {
    // compute something
    x = someValue; // 2
  // here 'x' has an undetermined value could
  // be either the value x from 1 or x from 2
// here 'x' contains the value computed in the async

Referencing Internal HC Values Without ROSE Generated HC Code

It's possible with certain function/macro calls to reference the HC worker state even though you aren't in a valid HC program. I ran into this in some HCMPI code compiled with hcc when trying to call



which reference the fields comm_rank and comm_size in the HC worker state. However, I got segfaults because no HC worker state existed as hcc had not generated any of the necessary code using ROSE. I solved this by adding a dummy finish scope in the program, indicating to the compiler that this was indeed HC code. hcc then correctly produced the auto-generated code for initializing the HC state.

Calling HC Functions From non-HC Code

When calling an HC function from non-HC code in separate files, the hcc compiler will not be able to resolve the function definition. This is a result of the name-mangling that HC does, which is not reflected in the original header files. As a result, when the final ROSE generated C file is compiled with the original calling C/C++, the compiler won't resolve the originally named function to the new HC-mangled one. The way to fix this is by adding

#pragma hc continuable

above the function declaration in the header file. And tada! Fixed. Credit to Vincent for teaching me this.

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